The Vietnam War These young soldiers were members of the U. This picture was taken induring the first military engagements between U. The Vietnam War was the second-longest war in United States history, after the war in Afghanistan Promises and commitments to the people and government of South Vietnam to keep communist forces from overtaking them reached back into the Truman Administration.
Visit Website Seeking to regain control of the region, France backed Emperor Bao and set up the state of Vietnam in Julywith the city of Saigon as its capital. Both sides wanted the same thing: But while Ho and his supporters wanted a nation modeled after other communist countries, Bao and many others wanted a Vietnam with close economic and cultural ties to the West.
According to a survey by the Veterans Administration, someof the 3 million troops who served in Vietnam suffered from post-traumatic stress disorder, and rates of divorce, suicide, alcoholism and drug addiction were markedly higher among veterans. When Did the Vietnam War Start?
The Vietnam War and active U. The French loss at the battle ended almost a century of French colonial rule in Indochina. The subsequent treaty signed in July at a Geneva conference split Vietnam along the latitude known as the 17th Parallel 17 degrees north latitudewith Ho in control in the North and Bao in the South.
The treaty also called for nationwide elections for reunification to be held in Eisenhower had pledged his firm support to Diem and South Vietnam. Though the NLF claimed to be autonomous and that most of its members were not communists, many in Washington assumed it was a puppet of Hanoi.
Kennedy in to report on conditions in South Vietnam advised a build-up of American military, economic and technical aid in order to help Diem confront the Viet Cong threat.
Bythe U. Gulf of Tonkin A coup by some of his own generals succeeded in toppling and killing Diem and his brother, Ngo Dinh Nhu, in Novemberthree weeks before Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas.
Congress soon passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolutionwhich gave Johnson broad war-making powers, and U. In MarchJohnson made the decision—with solid support from the American public—to send U. By June, 82, combat troops were stationed in Vietnam, and military leaders were calling formore by the end of to shore up the struggling South Vietnamese army.
Despite the concerns of some of his advisers about this escalation, and about the entire war effort amid a growing anti-war movement, Johnson authorized the immediate dispatch oftroops at the end of July and anotherin Westmoreland pursued a policy of attrition, aiming to kill as many enemy troops as possible rather than trying to secure territory.
Heavy bombing by B aircraft or shelling made these zones uninhabitable, as refugees poured into camps in designated safe areas near Saigon and other cities. Even as the enemy body count at times exaggerated by U. Additionally, supported by aid from China and the Soviet Union, North Vietnam strengthened its air defenses.
The later years of the war saw increased physical and psychological deterioration among American soldiers—both volunteers and draftees—including drug use, post-traumatic stress disorder PTSDmutinies and attacks by soldiers against officers and noncommissioned officers.
Between July and Decembermore thanU. Bombarded by horrific images of the war on their televisions, Americans on the home front turned against the war as well: In Octobersome 35, demonstrators staged a massive Vietnam War protest outside the Pentagon.
Opponents of the war argued that civilians, not enemy combatants, were the primary victims and that the United States was supporting a corrupt dictatorship in Saigon. On January 31,some 70, DRV forces under General Vo Nguyen Giap launched the Tet Offensive named for the lunar new yeara coordinated series of fierce attacks on more than cities and towns in South Vietnam.
Taken by surprise, U. Reports of the Tet Offensive stunned the U. With his approval ratings dropping in an election year, Johnson called a halt to bombing in much of North Vietnam though bombings continued in the south and promised to dedicate the rest of his term to seeking peace rather than reelection.
Despite the later inclusion of the South Vietnamese and the NLF, the dialogue soon reached an impasse, and after a bitter election season marred by violence, Republican Richard M.
Nixon won the presidency.
In an attempt to limit the volume of American casualties, he announced a program called Vietnamization: In addition to this Vietnamization policy, Nixon continued public peace talks in Paris, adding higher-level secret talks conducted by Secretary of State Henry Kissinger beginning in the spring of The North Vietnamese continued to insist on complete and unconditional U.
My Lai Massacre The next few years would bring even more carnage, including the horrifying revelation that U. After the My Lai Masscreanti-war protests continued to build as the conflict wore on. In andthere were hundreds of protest marches and gatherings throughout the country.
On November 15,the largest anti-war demonstration in American history took place in Washington, D. The anti-war movement, which was particularly strong on college campuses, divided Americans bitterly.
For some young people, the war symbolized a form of unchecked authority they had come to resent. For other Americans, opposing the government was considered unpatriotic and treasonous.The Vietnam War (Vietnamese: Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Vietnamese: Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November to the fall of Saigon on 30 April The Vietnam War was the second-longest war in United States history, after the war in Afghanistan.
Promises and commitments to the people and government of South Vietnam to keep communist forces from overtaking them reached back into the Truman Administration.
The War and the Future of American Foreign Policy, Edited by Richard M. Pfeffer). New York Times, February 4, Recommended Reading List on the VietNam War: grupobittia.comm FAQ. Brian Ross's Bibliography . Foreign Policy, Vietnam War, and Watergate, The Impact of Vietnam Kent State tragedy, Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, War Powers Resolution, military draft, presidential power The Vietnam War affected the United States in many ways.
The Vietnam War and American Foreign Policy, (Module 3) Covering the U.S. involvement in the region from the early days of the Kennedy administration, through the escalation of the war during the Johnson administration, to the final resolution of the war at the Paris Peace Talks and the evacuation of .
The military history of the United States spans a period of over two centuries. in a state of war, having never signed a peace treaty, and American forces remain stationed in South Korea as part of American foreign policy. Vietnam War (–75) Formation of.