Cognitive disorders can be caused by all sorts of brain problems, including tumors, strokes, closed-head injuries, infections, exposure to neurotoxins i. The specific type of cognitive disorder someone develops depends on the part of the brain that is affected. For instance, a tumor that grows in the brain's speech centers will result in problems with communication. Similarly, an infection in the brain's motor centers will cause problems with movement.
Signs and Symptoms Signs and symptoms of intellectual disability in children and teens The signs and symptoms of intellectual disability will vary tremendously from person to person depending upon the severity of the disability, the underlying cause for the disability, the implementation of appropriate interventions, and co-occurring disorders.
Signs and symptoms are broken down by level of severity. Early signs and symptoms of intellectual disability: Preschool aged-children may show no conceptual symptoms School-aged children may have difficulties learning academic skills such as reading, writing, math, time, or money Older children, teens, and adults may have impairment in short-term memory, abstract thinking, planning, organizing, setting priorities as well as functional use of academic skills Social symptoms: Immature social interactions with peers Difficulties understanding social skills Communication, conversation, and language immaturity Challenges with emotional regulation Practical symptoms: Limited understanding of conceptual skills Little to no understanding of written language, concepts using numbers, quantity, time, and money Caregivers must provide extensive support for problem solving throughout life Social skills: Spoken language, vocabulary, and grammar is markedly limited Speech may include only single words or phrases Speech is focused upon the present and everyday events Language used primarily for communication rather than explanation Person does understand speech and gestures in communication Practical skills: Conceptual skills usually encompass the physical world rather than symbolic processes Objects may be used in a goal-directed manner for self-care, work, and leisure.
However, people who have co-occurring motor and sensory impairments may be unable to properly use physical objects. May be able to learn visuospatial skills such as matching objects based upon physical features Social skills: Very limited comprehension of symbolic communication in words or gestures May be unable to understand some instructions or gestures Non-verbal, non-symbolic communication techniques used to make needs and emotions known Co-occurring sensory and physical impairment may hamper social abilities Practical skills: Dependent upon others for all aspects of physical care, health, and safety, although he or she may be able to participate in some of these activities with assistance Simple actions with objects may be the way a person participates in activities Co-occurring physical and sensory impairments are often barriers to participation in some home, recreational, and vocational activities Effects Effects of intellectual disability in children and teens Depending upon the root cause for the disability and the severity of the symptoms, many people who have intellectual disabilities are able to live happy, fulfilled lives.
There are, however, some possible negative effects of intellectual disabilities. Challenges locating and obtaining basic healthcare, adequate nutrition, education, and economic stability Consequences of pre-existing medical conditions Participating in risky behaviors, including substance use and violent behaviors Difficulties finding and maintaining gainful employment Difficulties performing activities of daily living Homelessness Manipulation by others around the person Caregiver burnout and abuse Co-Occurring Disorders Intellectual disability and co-occurring disorders There are a number of disorders that co-occur in people who have intellectual disabilities.
The most common co-occurring, comorbid disorders include:Doctors diagnose dissociative disorders based on a review of symptoms and personal history. A doctor may perform tests to rule out physical conditions that can cause symptoms such as memory loss and a sense of unreality (for example, head injury, brain .
Overview Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is the stage between the expected cognitive decline of normal aging and the more serious decline of dementia. It can involve problems with memory, language, thinking and judgment that are greater than normal age-related changes. Signs & Symptoms Signs and Symptoms of PTSD Posttraumatic stress disorder can manifest in a wide range of symptoms and maladaptive behaviors, with no one symptom or group of symptoms present in all cases.
The signs and symptoms of intellectual disability will vary tremendously from person to person depending upon the severity of the disability, the underlying cause for the disability, the implementation of appropriate interventions, and co-occurring disorders.
Signs and symptoms of PTSD Posttraumatic stress disorder can come to life in a number of ways depending on a handful of different factors. Some of the most common signs and symptoms of this disorder can include. Overview. These disorders are characterized by enduring, inflexible, maladaptive, and pervasive patterns of behavior.
This category does not include the mental disorders evaluated under neurocognitive disorders (), intellectual disorder (), and neurodevelopmental disorders () Symptoms and signs specific to tic disorders.