The simplest and easiest to understand of all the arguments ever offered by believers is the Argument from Design. The argument is remarkably simple. It goes as follows: The existence of a suit implies the existence of the tailor who made the suit.

Bell wrote that David "Bohm's papers on quantum mechanics were for me a revelation. The elimination of indeterminism was very striking. But more important, it seemed to me, was the elimination of any need for a vague division of the world into 'system' on the one hand, and 'apparatus' or 'observer' on the other.

Bohm's pilot-wave theory was a clean counterexample, i. This led Bell to carefully scrutinize those theorems. The result of this work was his paper "On the problem of hidden variables in quantum mechanics" 5. This paper was written prior to the paper 6 in which Bell's theorem was first presented, but due to an editorial accident remained unpublished until The paper shows that the "no hidden variables" theorems of von Neumann and others all made unwarranted — and in some cases unacknowledged — assumptions.

All these theorems involved an assumption 7 which today is usually called non-contextuality. In examining how Bohm's theory managed to violate these assumptions, Bell noticed that it did have one "curious feature": As Bell explained, "in this theory an explicit causal mechanism exists whereby the disposition of one piece of apparatus affects the results obtained with a distant piece.

It would therefore be interesting, perhaps, to pursue some further 'impossibility proofs,' replacing the arbitrary axioms objected to above by some condition of locality, or of separability of distant systems. The answer is contained in what we will here call "Bell's inequality theorem", which states precisely that "any hidden variable account of quantum mechanics must have this extraordinary character", i.

But the more general result we here call "Bell's theorem" is much more than this: The EPR argument for pre-existing values It is a general principle of orthodox formulations of quantum theory that measurements of physical quantities do not simply reveal pre-existing or pre-determined values, the way they do in classical theories.

Instead, the particular outcome of the measurement somehow "emerges" from the dynamical interaction of the system being measured with the measuring device, so that even someone who was omniscient about the states of the system and device prior to the interaction couldn't have predicted in advance which outcome would be realized.

In a celebrated paper 11however, Albert Einstein, Boris Podolsky, and Nathan Rosen pointed out that, in situations involving specially-prepared pairs of particles, this orthodox principle conflicted with locality.

Unfortunately, the role of locality in the discussion is often misunderstood — or missed entirely.

One thus often hears that the EPR paper is essentially just an expression of in particular Einstein's philosophical discontent with quantum theory. This is quite wrong: It is on this basis — in particular, on the assumption of locality — that EPR claimed to have established the "incompleteness" of orthodox quantum theory which denies the existence of any such pre-existing values.

In the EPR paper, the argument was formulated in terms of position and momentum which are observables having continuous spectra. The argument was later reformulated by Bohm 12 in terms of spin.

This "EPRB" version is conceptually simpler and also more closely related to the recent experiments designed to test Bell's inequality. The EPRB argument is as follows: A measurement of the spin of one of the particles along a given axis yields either the result "up" i.

If such measurements are carried out simultaneously on two spatially-separated particles technically, if the measurements are performed at space-like separation then locality requires that any disturbance triggered by the measurement on one side cannot influence the result of the measurement on the other side.

Any element of locally-confined indeterminism would at least sometimes spoil the predicted perfect anti-correlation between the outcomes.

Thus it applies to all axes at once That is, assuming a locality and b that the perfect anti-correlations predicted by quantum theory actually obtain, it follows that each particle must carry a pre-existing value for spin along all possible axes, with the values for the two particles in a given pair — which, of course, needn't be the same from one particle pair to another — perfectly anti-correlated, axis by axis.

A mathematical formulation of this argument is presented at the end of Section 5. Bell's inequality theorem Pre-existing values are thus the only local way to account for perfect anti-correlations in the outcomes of spin measurements along identical axes.

But a simple argument shows that pre-existing values are incompatible with the predictions of quantum theory for a pair of particles prepared in the singlet state when we allow also for the possibility of spin measurements along different axes. It follows from the simple mathematical result below, Bell's inequality theorem, that this is not compatible with the pre-existing values we have been discussing.

To see this, suppose that the spin measurements for both particles do simply reveal pre-existing values. Agreement with quantum theory also requires opposite outcomes for identical measurement axes, i.A rebuttal essay, also known as an argument or counter-argument essay, typically responds to specific points made by a person or organization.

As in a debate, this type of essay gives you the opportunity to present your opinions on a situation using research and critical thinking to address an argument. Understanding. Argument Rebuttal About The Legalization of Marijuana Barbara Chalfant BCOM/ May 27, Randi Barnes-Plante Argument Rebuttal about the Legalization of Marijuana Legalizing marijuana has been a huge argumentive issue for a long time and over the last few years it .

On Chomsky and the Two Cultures of Statistical Learning At the Brains, Minds, and Machines symposium held during MIT's th birthday party, Technology Review reports that Prof.

Noam Chomsky. Updated 13 March, The Tragedy of the Commons by Garrett Hardin, Published in Science, December 13, For copyright permission, click here..

The author is professor of biology, University of California, Santa Barbara. A rebuttal essay must show that the writer understands the original argument before attempting to counter it.

You must read the original claim carefully, paying close attention to the explanation and examples used to support the point. We will write a custom essay sample on Rebuttal Argument or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER If a kid say they are bored something needs to be done so that they do not find something to do themselves.

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Counterargument - Wikipedia