Describe the periodic nature and properties of elements

BUT, silicon Si, germanium Ge, arsenic As, antimony Sb, tellurium Te are described as 'metalloids' because they have a mixture of metallic and non-metallic properties. From a working knowledge of the periodic table you should be able to predict the number of outer electrons e. Groups 1—7 possible compound formulae, reactions and symbol equations and the probable reactivity of elements from their positions in the periodic table. This is especially so for e.

Describe the periodic nature and properties of elements

What he found, however, was that the chemical and physical properties of the elements increased gradually and then suddenly changed at distinct steps, or periods.

To account for these repeating trends, Mendeleev grouped the elements in a table that had both rows and columns. As one moves from left to right in a row of the periodic table, the properties of the elements gradually change.

At the end of each row, a drastic shift occurs in chemical properties. The next element in order of atomic number is more similar chemically speaking to the first element in the row above it; thus a new row begins on the table.

Thus sodium begins a new row in the periodic table and is placed directly beneath lithium, highlighting their chemical similarities. Rows in the periodic table are called periods. As one moves from left to right in a given period, the chemical properties of the elements slowly change.

Columns in the periodic table are called groups. Elements in a given group in the periodic table share many similar chemical and physical properties. Comprehension Checkpoint Why does sodium appear directly below lithium in the periodic table? Sodium comes after lithium alphabetically.

Sodium is similar to lithium in terms of chemical properties. Electron configuration and the table The "periodic" nature of chemical properties that Mendeleev had discovered is related to the electron configuration of the atoms of the elements. Each shell has a limited capacity for electrons.

As lower shells are filled, additional electrons reside in more-distant shells. The capacity of the first electron shell is two electrons and for the second shell the capacity is eight.

Chemical element - Wikipedia

Thus, in our example discussed above, oxygen, with eight protons and eight electrons, carries two electrons in its first shell and six in its second shell.

Fluorine, with nine electrons, carries two in its first shell and seven in the second. Neon, with ten electrons, carries two in the first and eight in the second.

Because the number of electrons in the second shell increases, we can begin to imagine why the chemical properties gradually change as we move from oxygen to fluorine to neon. Sodium has eleven electrons. Two fit in its first shell, but remember that the second shell can only carry eight electrons.

This electron takes up residence in yet another orbit, a third electron shell in sodium. The reason that there is a dramatic shift in chemical properties when moving from neon to sodium is because there is a dramatic shift in electron configuration between the two elements.

But why is sodium similar to lithium? Electron Configurations for Selected Elements As you can see in the illustration, while sodium has three electron shells and lithium two, the characteristic they share in common is that they both have only one electron in their outermost electron shell.

These outer-shell electrons called valence electrons are important in determining the chemical properties of the elements. If we picture the outer valence electron shell of an atom as a sphere encompassing everything inside, then it is only the valence shell that can interact with other atoms — much the same way as it is only the paint on the exterior of your house that "interacts" with, and gets wet by, rain water.

Since both sodium and lithium have one valence electronthey share similar chemical properties. Comprehension Checkpoint The chemical properties of an element are determined by the number of electrons in a.

Describe the periodic nature and properties of elements

Thus Li, Na, and other elements in group IA have one valence electron. Be, Mg, and other group-IIA elements have two valence electrons. The row, or periodnumber that an element resides in on the table is equal to the number of total shells that contain electrons in the atom.

H and He in the first period normally have electrons in only the first shell; Li, Be, B, and other period-two elements have two shells occupied, and so on. A few examples are shown below.Describe The Periodic Nature And Properties Of Atoms And Molecules.

The Periodic Properties of Atoms The Periodic Table: In the 's, the Russian chemist Mendeleev developed the periodic table, based upon the relationship between the atomic weights of the elements and their chemical one ascends from lightest to heaviest .

Light-Emitting Diodes: Diverse Applications Larger Spin 3D Vibrating wire sensor. My grandfather, Armin Wirth, made his fortune inventing weighing scales, machines to weigh everything from ladles full of molten steel to airplanes to powdered sugar.

Photographs and descriptions of many samples of the element Copper in the Periodic Table. The Evolution of the Periodic System.

From its origins some years ago, the periodic table has become a vital tool for modern chemists. Welcome to the Periodic Table of Comic Books.

Periodic Trends Experiment

Click on an element to see a list of comic book pages involvingthat element. Click on a thumbnail on the list to see a full comic bookpage. 5 periodic properties of elements One of the greatest intellectual achievement in chemistry is the periodic table of the elements.

The periodic table can be printed on a single sheet of paper, but what it contains and can teach us is. The "periodic" nature of chemical properties that Mendeleev had discovered is related to the electron configuration of the atoms of the elements.

In other words, the way in which an atom's electrons are arranged around its nucleus affects the properties of the atom.

The Photographic Periodic Table of the Elements