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Human Food Project Leave a Comment AS THE SUN set over Lake Eyasi in Tanzania, nearly thirty minutes had passed since I had inserted a turkey baster into my bum and injected the feces of a Hadza man — a member of one of the last remaining hunter-gatherers tribes in the world — into the nether regions of my distal colon.
I struggled to keep my legs in the air with my toes pointing towards what I thought was the faint outline of the Southern Cross rising in the evening sky.
With my hands under my hips — and butt perched against a large rock for support — I peddled an imaginary upside down bicycle in the air to pass the time as I struggled to make sure my new gut ecosystem stayed put inside me.
With my butt cheeks flexed and my, you know what puckered, I wondered if I had just made a terrible mistake.
Could I really displace my western gut microbial ecosystem with that of a man, who, days before had dined on animals as diverse as zebra and monkey, possessed one of the most diverse gut microbiomes of any person in the world? Would my immune system soon freak out at the presence of what should be some familiar Old microbial Friends now setting up shop throughout the slimy vastness of my gastrointestinal tract?
Or had I just unwittingly infected myself with some lethal bacteria or virus? The pros and cons — mostly cons — of my turkey basting activities raced through my anxious mind as I peddled my way into the evening. Hadza hunter carrying his share of a recent zebra kill.
My colleagues and I have been working and living amongst the Hadza hunter-gatherers of Tanzania for over a year now. The human samples have mostly included stool fecesbut also swabs of hands, foreheads, bottoms of feet, tongues some spitbreast milk from mothers, and so on.
Environmental sampling has included swabs of the plants and other foods they consume — like berries, roots, honey, etc.
For the animals, we collect feces and when possible swabs of the stomach contents of larger animals — all of which end up covering the Hadza sooner or later during butchering see little blurb in Nature titled Please Pass the Microbes.
We also swab their homes — inside and out — along with the various water sources. In short, we swab everything including the researchers while in the field.
Additional collaborators working on various analysis are scattered at universities in the US and Europe. Twenty years of rainfall in Hadza Land taken at Kisema Ngeda.
Among many things, we are interested in how Hadza microbes — along with their environmental microbes water, homes, plants and animals — shift between the wet and dry seasons.
Due to some unique geography and global weather patternsEast Africa experiences a striking wet and dry season — essentially 6 months of on and off rain, followed by almost none see figure. This reality means that during the dry season, as water holes dry up, the Hadza kill a lot more animals as dwindling water sources make the animals more predictable and easier to shoot with their poison arrows from hunting blinds aka ambush hunting.
An increase in protein and fat from animals means a drop off in other caloric resources, mainly plants, as the Hadza will often binge on meat when possible note they have no storage so everything is eaten in a short period of time.
During the wet season when Hadza Land is awash in greenery and flowers, the Hadza enjoy an abundance of wild honey fat of the larvae included and massive stands of sugary berries. With the coming of the rains larger animals are more scattered and thus harder to kill, so make up less of the daily calories though its highly variable from day-to-day and week-to-week and from camp-to-camp.
No matter the season, fibrous baobab fruit and subsurface tubers are a daily constant for the Hadza. Yes, they consume lots and lots of dietary fiber! The impact of seasonality on the Hadza and their microbial environment is an interesting and possibly important question as it relates to what a healthier microbiome might have looked like before the niceties and medications of late whacked the crap out of our gut bugs in the so-called modern world.
Should we really strive for a certain composition of gut microbes as many modern buggy-like products infer — such as those found in over the counter probiotics, various drinks and foods? Or does the reality of our seasonal past reveal that our gut microbiome is a shape shifting metabolic organ pulling the strings on our health and well being in a bi- or even tri-annual circadian-like rhythm?
Said differently, and with all due respect to the brilliant Harvard researcher Richard Wrangham of fire made us human fameis seasonality and its impact on our symbiotic microbes more responsible for what makes us human?ASTRUD GILBERTO.
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On April 18, Astrud Gilberto Wrote to Fans And To Animal Lovers. Essay:Becoming Vegetarian. From RationalWiki. Jump to: navigation, search. This essay is an original work by and copyrighted to AD. It does not necessarily reflect the views expressed in RationalWiki's Mission Statement, but we welcome discussion of a broad range of ideas.
This is a model vegetarianism essay. As I always stress, you should read the question very carefullybefore you answer it to make sure you are writing about the right thing. Take a look at the question: Every one of us should become a vegetarian because eating .
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This essay covers the marketing mix of the worldwide tourism industry - 4P analysis of the tourism industry. A vegetarian is a person who does not consume any type of meat product. The reasons that people choose to have this type of diet can be for many different reasons, but they are often related to morals, health, or religion.