I have no doubt India will develop her scientific researches and I hope Indian scientists will use the atomic force for constructive purposes. But if India is threatened, she will inevitably try to defend herself by all means at her disposal. This also stimulated the early work of the Nuclear Suppliers Group.
This testing program surpassed in scale, extent, and duration that of Nazi doctors in German-occupied Europe. More importantly, these experiments also included a biological weapons testing program, which even the Germans never attempted. These activities took place in a series of research camps established in the Japanese puppet-state of Manchukuo Manchuriawhich Japan had conquered from China in The subjects of the testing included civilians and prisoners of war, among which were Chinese, Koreans, Russians, Mongolians, Americans, and POWs from other Allied countries.
Symbolic of their disdain for human life, the Japanese referred to these testing subjects as "Maruta" or "logs". The primary testing facility was located in a camp complex at Ping Fan outside of the city of Harbin.
The unit stationed there was designated Unit and placed under the command of Lieutenant General Ishii Shiro. For security purposes Unit was given the ironic designation of "Water Purification Unit ". In the last two decades the designation "Unit " has become a blanket term used to describe the overall Japanese bio-weapons program.
In reality, however, the complex under Unit consisted of more than buildings spread out over six kilometers. In addition, nine satellite facilities were also established: Within the Unit complex numerous factories and laboratories produced chemicals and biological agents, among which were disease-infected fleas and plague bacteria.
Autopsies and other controlled experiments were carried out as well.
These included, but were not limited to The testing of grenades, flame throwers, and bombs on human beings. The removal of entire bodily organs purposely infected with various diseases in order to see the effect of the disease on the organ. Amputations of limbs for studying the impact of blood loss.
Operations on subjects in which parts of organs would be removedlimbs would be moved around on the body, and healthy organs would be removed to study the reaction of the body. Food and water deprivation to study the effect and duration before death.
Air pressure experiments in which subjects died. Burning experiments to determine the physiological effect of fire on the human body. X-ray radiation experiments Combining animal and human blood experiments. Simulated stroke experiments using air bubbles.
A large number of biological weapons experiments were also conducted at Ping Fan and its subsidiary camps. These experiments sometimes entailed the injection of a biological pathogen into the body of a human subject. Among the pathogens tested were cholera, small pox, plague, and botulism.
Once the disease had run its course an autopsy would be conducted to determine the impact of the pathogen. Other experiments included placing humans in gas chambers and exposing them to airborne diseases like anthrax. Just under 1, autopsies were carried out at Unitwith estimates of the overall number who being as high as 3, people.Although the United States signed the ban on biological and toxic warfare in , Ft.
Detrick has been home to research on biological warfare since the ’s. Before , the research was centered on the design and modification of microorganisms and toxins for the purpose of offensive warfare tactics. History: The use of biological agents is not a new concept, and history is filled with examples of their use.
Attempts to use biological warfare agents date back to antiquity. Scythian archers infected their arrows by dipping them in decomposing bodies or in blood mixed with manure as far back as BC.
On 30 June , soon after the outbreak of the Korean War, the US Defense Secretary George Marshall received the Report of the Committee on Chemical, Biological and Radiological Warfare and Recommendations, which advocated urgent development of a biological weapons program.
The use of such special agents "was very tempting," says Adrienne Mayor, a classical folklorist and author of Greek Fire, Poison Arrows & Scorpion Bombs: Biological & Chemical Warfare in the Ancient World, "especially when you don't consider the enemy fully human.". HISTORY OF BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS.
has been discussed widely and is not the subject of this essay. Instead, solely for the sake of analysis, this essay accepts as one of its premises the highly controversial principle that warfare will continue to exist and that at least some nations or non-state entities will remain steadfast in their.
Although, research on using biology as warfare has a relatively short history in comparison to the history of traditional weaponry, biological warfare has proven to be just as powerful.
Bioweapons are infectious agents or artificially made toxic substances that can kill or weaken humans.